See Article History Basidiomycota, large and diverse phylum of fungi kingdom Fungi that includes jelly and shelf fungi ; mushroomspuffballsand stinkhorns ; certain yeasts ; and the rusts and smuts. Basidiomycota are typically filamentous fungi composed of hyphae.
Hyphae grow at their tips apices ; new hyphae are typically formed by emergence of new tips along existing hyphae by a process called branching, or occasionally growing hyphal tips fork, giving rise to two parallel-growing hyphae.
These growth processes lead to the development of a myceliuman interconnected network of hyphae. Septate hyphae are divided into compartments separated by cross walls internal cell walls, called septa, that are formed at right angles to the cell wall giving the hypha its shapewith each compartment containing one or more nuclei; coenocytic hyphae are not compartmentalized.
Mycelia grown on solid agar media in laboratory petri dishes are usually referred to as colonies.
These colonies can exhibit growth shapes and colors due to spores or pigmentation that can be used as diagnostic features in the identification of species or groups. Growth and physiology Mold growth covering a decaying peach.
The frames were taken approximately 12 hours apart over a period of six days. The growth of fungi as hyphae on or in solid substrates or as single cells in aquatic environments is adapted for the efficient extraction of nutrients, because these growth forms have high surface area to volume ratios.
Fungi have evolved a high degree of metabolic versatility that allows them to use a diverse range of organic substrates for growth, including simple compounds such as nitrateammoniaacetateor ethanol.
This form of "radiotrophic" growth has been described for only a few species, the effects on growth rates are small, and the underlying biophysical and biochemical processes are not well known.
These structures aid reproduction by efficiently dispersing spores or spore-containing propagules.
Asexual reproduction Asexual reproduction occurs via vegetative spores conidia or through mycelial fragmentation.
Mycelial fragmentation occurs when a fungal mycelium separates into pieces, and each component grows into a separate mycelium.
Mycelial fragmentation and vegetative spores maintain clonal populations adapted to a specific nicheand allow more rapid dispersal than sexual reproduction. Sexual reproduction See also: Mating in fungi and Sexual selection in fungi Sexual reproduction with meiosis has been directly observed in all fungal phyla except Glomeromycota  genetic analysis suggests meiosis in Glomeromycota as well.
It differs in many aspects from sexual reproduction in animals or plants. Differences also exist between fungal groups and can be used to discriminate species by morphological differences in sexual structures and reproductive strategies. Some species may allow mating only between individuals of opposite mating typewhereas others can mate and sexually reproduce with any other individual or itself.
Species of the former mating system are called heterothallicand of the latter homothallic.
|Basidiomycota - microbewiki||Taxonomy Genome Description and Significance Basidiomycota is a classification that describes a wide variety of organisms.|
|Fungi Characteristics||See Article History Alternative Title:|
|Basidiomycota||The root of the current tree connects the organisms featured in this tree to their containing group and the rest of the Tree of Life. The basal branching point in the tree represents the ancestor of the other groups in the tree.|
|Basidiomycota - Wikidata||Classification[ edit ] The most recent classification  adopted by a coalition of 67 mycologists recognizes three subphyla PucciniomycotinaUstilaginomycotinaAgaricomycotina and two other class level taxa WallemiomycetesEntorrhizomycetes outside of these, among the Basidiomycota. As now classified, the subphyla join and also cut across various obsolete taxonomic groups see below previously commonly used to describe Basidiomycota.|
|Fungi Classification - Basidiomycetes||See Article History Basidiomycota, large and diverse phylum of fungi kingdom Fungi that includes jelly and shelf fungi ; mushroomspuffballsand stinkhorns ; certain yeasts ; and the rusts and smuts.|
In sexually reproducing fungi, compatible individuals may combine by fusing their hyphae together into an interconnected network; this process, anastomosisis required for the initiation of the sexual cycle. Many ascomycetes and basidiomycetes go through a dikaryotic stage, in which the nuclei inherited from the two parents do not combine immediately after cell fusion, but remain separate in the hyphal cells see heterokaryosis.
During cell divisionformation of the hook ensures proper distribution of the newly divided nuclei into the apical and basal hyphal compartments. An ascus plural asci is then formed, in which karyogamy nuclear fusion occurs.
Asci are embedded in an ascocarpor fruiting body. Karyogamy in the asci is followed immediately by meiosis and the production of ascospores. After dispersal, the ascospores may germinate and form a new haploid mycelium.
Compatible haploid hyphae fuse to produce a dikaryotic mycelium. However, the dikaryotic phase is more extensive in the basidiomycetes, often also present in the vegetatively growing mycelium.
A specialized anatomical structure, called a clamp connectionis formed at each hyphal septum.Descriptions of Fungi and Bacteria are a series of loose-leaf sheets issued in sets of 10, with four sets appearing each year. Each sheet provides a standardized statement of current knowledge about an individual species of fungus or bacterium, in an integrated format to assist identification or confirmation of identity of significant species.
division of fungi. This page was last edited on 8 November , at All structured data from the main, property and lexeme namespaces is available under the Scientific name: Basidiomycota. The following is a brief description of each phylum.
Chytridiomycota. Chytrids, the organisms found in Chytridiomycota, are usually aquatic and microscopic. They are usually asexual, and produce spores that move around using flagella, small tail-like appendages.
Mushrooms are a common example of basidiomycetes.
Examples of Fungi. Description and Significance Basidiomycota is a classification that describes a wide variety of organisms. It is estimated that there are about 30, species, and more species are being discovered all the time.
She covers the fungi and fungus-like organisms, kingdom Fungi: the true fungi, Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, lichens as fungi living with photobionts, other groups of true fungi, and the fungus-like organisms straminipila and slime molds.
Description and Significance. Basidiomycota is a classification that describes a wide variety of organisms. It is estimated that there are about 30, species, and more species are being discovered all the time.