Colonial literature[ edit ] Because of the large immigration to Boston in the s, the articulation of Puritan ideals, and the early establishment of a college and a printing press in Cambridgethe New England colonies have often been regarded as the center of early American literature. However, the first European settlements in North America had been founded elsewhere many years earlier. During the colonial period, the printing press was active in many areas, from Cambridge and Boston to New YorkPhiladelphiaand Annapolis.
Jews successfully established themselves in the garment trades and in the needle unions in New York. By the s they were a major political factor in New York, with strong support for the most liberal programs of the New Deal.
By the mids, however, the Black Power movement caused a growing separation between blacks and Jews, though both groups remained solidly in the Democratic camp. Many Jews rose to leadership positions in the early 20th century American labor movement and helped to found unions that played a major role in left wing politics and, afterin Democratic Party politics.
RooseveltAmerican Jews voted more solidly Democratic. In the election ofJewish support for Democrat Harry S. In the th Congress, there are 10 Jews  among U.
Representatives at the start of the th Congress;  26 Democrats and one Eric Cantor Republican. The total number of Jews serving in the House of Representatives declined from 31 in the th Congress.
He served as Majority Leader untilwhen he resigned shortly after his loss in the Republican primary election for his House seat. Participation in civil rights movements[ edit ] Members of the American Jewish community have included prominent participants in civil rights movements.
In the midth century, there were American Jews who were among the most active participants in the Civil Rights Movement and feminist movements. A number of American Jews have also been active figures in the struggle for gay rights in America.
Joachim Prinzpresident of the American Jewish Congressstated the following when he spoke from the podium at the Lincoln Memorial during the famous March on Washington on August 28, From our Jewish historic experience of three and a half thousand years we say: Our ancient history began with slavery and the yearning for freedom.
During the Middle Ages my people lived for a thousand years in the ghettos of Europe. It is for these reasons that it is not merely sympathy and compassion for the black people of America that motivates us. It is, above all and beyond all such sympathies and emotions, a sense of complete identification and solidarity born of our own painful historic experience.
Most Jews from Eastern Europe favored Zionism, which saw a return to their historical homeland as the only solution; this had the effect of diverting attention from the persecution of Jews in Germany.
German Jews were alarmed at the Nazis but were disdainful of Zionism. Proponents of a Jewish state and Jewish army agitated, but many leaders were so fearful of an antisemitic backlash inside the U.
One important development was the sudden conversion of most but not all Jewish leaders to Zionism late in the war. Reporters and editors largely did not believe the atrocity stories coming out of Europe.
Abraham Joshua Heschel summarized this dilemma when he attempted to understand Auschwitz: Israel enables us to bear the agony of Auschwitz without radical despair, to sense a ray [of] God's radiance in the jungles of history.
Zionism became a well-organized movement in the U. Roosevelt 's leftist domestic policies received strong Jewish support in the s and s, as did his anti-Nazi foreign policy and his promotion of the United Nations.
Support for political Zionism in this period, although growing in influence, remained a distinctly minority opinion among German Jews until about —45, when the early rumors and reports of the systematic mass murder of the Jews in German-occupied Europe became publicly known with the liberation of the Nazi concentration camps and extermination camps.
The founding of Israel in made the Middle East a center of attention; the recognition of Israel by the American government following objections by American isolationists was an indication of both its intrinsic support and influence.
This attention initially was based on a natural and religious affinity toward and support for Israel in the Jewish community. The attention is also because of the ensuing and unresolved conflicts regarding the founding of Israel and Zionism itself. A lively internal debate commenced, following the Six-Day War.
The American Jewish community was divided over whether or not they agreed with the Israeli response; the great majority came to accept the war as necessary.
A tension existed especially for some Jews on the left who saw Israel as too anti-Soviet and anti-Palestinian. They tried to assure Congress that American Jewry was behind the Accord and defended the efforts of the administration to help the fledgling Palestinian Authority PAincluding promises of financial aid.
In a battle for public opinion, IPF commissioned a number of polls showing widespread support for Oslo among the community. On October 10,the opponents of the Palestinian-Israeli accord organized at the American Leadership Conference for a Safe Israelwhere they warned that Israel was prostrating itself before "an armed thug", and predicted and that the "thirteenth of September is a date that will live in infamy".
Some Zionists also criticized, often in harsh language, Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin and Shimon Pereshis foreign minister and chief architect of the peace accord.
With the community so strongly divided, AIPAC and the Presidents Conference, which was tasked with representing the national Jewish consensus, struggled to keep the increasingly antagonistic discourse civil.
The conference, which under its organizational guidelines was in charge of moderating communal discourse, reluctantly censured some Orthodox spokespeople for attacking Colette Avitalthe Labor-appointed Israeli Consul General in New York and an ardent supporter of that version of a peace process.
The Jewish population of the United States is either the largest in the world, or second to that of Israel, depending on the sources and methods used to measure it. Precise population figures vary depending on whether Jews are accounted for based on halakhic considerations, or secular, political and ancestral identification factors.
There were about 4 million adherents of Judaism in the U. According to the Jewish Agencyfor the year Israel is home to 6.English American Literature Final Free Practice Test Instructions Choose your answer to the question and click 'Continue' to see how you did.
Then click 'Next Question' to answer the next. Originally titled "An Oration Delivered before the Phi Beta Kappa Society, at Cambridge, [Massachusetts,] August 31, ," Emerson delivered what is now referred to as "The American Scholar" essay as a speech to Harvard's Phi Beta Kappa Society, an honorary society of male college students with unusually high grade point averages.
Literature Study Romantic/Transcendentalism, Great Gatsby and Huck Finn. Study review packets/notes. Lit Terms with Literature Study your literary terms. See the list below. Research Questions Study your research notes/packet and the questions below. Poetry Study Poetry terms.
Reading Comprehension Study Organizational Patterns. ENGLISH AMERICAN LITERATURE I SYLLABUS Instructor: Dr. Susan Copeland CRN: Major works of American Literature from the late 16th century through the in light of history and literature since those writers wrote Final exam Final exam Final exam Final exam Final exam Final exam Final exam.
American Jews, or Jewish Americans, are Americans who are Jews, whether by religion, ethnicity or nationality. The current Jewish community in the United States consists primarily of Ashkenazi Jews, who descend from diaspora Jewish populations of Central and Eastern Europe and comprise about 90% of the American Jewish population.
Most American Ashkenazim are US-born, with a dwindling number . American Literature Final Exam. Questions could be flipped. STUDY. PLAY. What is "the American Renaissance?" The Popular Front was an attempt to bring what political ideology to American art and literature?
Communist. What Steinbeck novel served as our example of Popular Front ideology?