But the BRI is increasingly causing concerns.
Gangs The label gang has been applied to various groups including outlaws of the nineteenth-century American West, prison inmates, Mafioso and other organized criminals, motorcyclists, and groups of inner city youths.
Despite its diverse application, the term gang almost always connotes involvement in disreputable or illegal activities. Social scientists use the term gang most frequently when describing groups of juveniles. This tendency dates back to Frederic Thrasher's The Gang: A Study of 1, Gangs in Chicago According to Thrasher, social conditions in the United States at the end of the nineteenth century encouraged the development of street gangs.
In this period, many immigrants settled in ethnic enclaves in inner-city neighborhoods characterized by several features: These conditions resulted in socially disorganized neighborhoods where social institutions and social control mechanisms were weak and ineffective.
The lack of social control encouraged youths to find other means of establishing social orderwhich they did by forming gangs. Thrasher's research has influenced most subsequent theory and research on gangs.
Albert Cohen theorized that gangs emerge from a subculture created by lower socioeconomic youths in response to their exclusion from mainstream middle-class culture. These youths recognize that they are unlikely to obtain the status valued by the middle class and create a gang culture that offers an alternative source of status.
According to Walter Millerlower-class culture includes norms and values that are structured around the focal concerns of trouble, toughness, smartness, excitement, fate, and autonomy.
Gangs and criminal activity are behavioral manifestations of these focal concerns. Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin proposed that delinquency and gang formation stem from differential opportunity structures: Lower-class adolescents' limited access to the legal means of achieving goals leaves them frustrated.
Gangs can reduce feelings of powerlessness by providing youths access to illegitimate means; that is, with opportunities to learn and be instructed in crime by seasoned offenders.
Interest in gangs declined in the s; however, gangs have increasingly captured the attention of academics since Many of the efforts since the s focus on the social disorganization perspective from which much of the original gang research originated.
For example, Robert Bursik Jr. Defining Gangs Gang researchers have suggested several definitions of gangs. It is characterized by the following types of behavior: The result of this collective behavior is the development of tradition, unreflective internal structure, esprit de corps, solidarity, morale, group awareness, and attachment to a local territory.
According to Thrasher, all childhood playgroups are potential gangs. The transformation from playgroup to gang occurs when youths encounter others who oppose or display disapproval for their group.For , Berkeley Unified School District lost over $2,, in unearned income due to absences.
What do I do if my child is absent from school? Call your child’s school office or the specific school’s absence reporting hotline each day the child is absent giving your name, the child’s name, and the reason for the absence. Holcomb-McCoy expands on the difference between School Phobia and Truancy, explaining that “School Refusers (School Phobics) require treatment associated with anxiety whereas school truants require treatment associated with conduct disorders” ( p).
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An Analysis of the Physical and Mental Implications. Value-added estimates of teacher or school quality are increasingly used for both high- and low-stakes accountability purposes, making understanding of their limitations critical.
A review of the recent value-added literature suggests three concerns with the state of the research. First, the issues. Truancy and the school system How far has the school system advanced in the last century? Some would say not far. An Overview of the Truancy and the School System in Berkley College PAGES 2.
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Exactly. The West Virginia Archives and History web site offers detailed information on the state's history, outlines the documents available in the State Archives, and provides assistance in .