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Animal Testing in the Cosmetic Industry I. Introduction Although it has appeared in the social and political spotlight more so in the past few decades than it has at any other point in history, opposition to the use of animals in scientific experiments — especially those aimed at facilitating the production of new cosmetic products — is nothing new. Since at least the 18th century, many notable philosophers and activists have spoken out for animal rights and against the use of non-humans for testing of products whose sole beneficiary is the human race. A common stumbling block, however, for activists attempting to follow this path has been the dismissal by more moderate policy-makers of proposals that, often partly because of the mere manner in which they are presented, strike them as morally unconscionable.

Compare tom regan carl cohen and

For we need to take account of these parties' intrinsic value, and their competing types of claim. Yet, there exists no known way for making such Compare tom regan carl cohen and, when a human's intrinsic value is higher than that of an animal, whereas the type of claim an animal has is morally weightier than the type of claim a human has.

Compare tom regan carl cohen and

Second, I explain why utilitarianism is unhelpful in making such comparison. I would also like to thank the audiences on these occasions for helpful comments.

Simplicity and elegance are never reasons to think that a philosophical theory is true: Often the problem has to be reformulated, because an adequate answer to the original formulation fails to make the sense of the problem disappear.

It is always reasonable in philosophy to have great respect for the intuitive sense of an unsolved problem, because in philosophy our methods are always themselves in question, and this is one way of being prepared to abandon them at any point.

This result need not be thought of pessimistically, since the recognition of a serious obstacle is always a necessary condition of progress.

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Ethical issues such as euthanasia, pornography, capital punishment, and world hunger only concern human persons. However, with the increasing prominence of issues such as animal rights and abortion, in addition to human persons, other beings are involved.

I shall argue that the intrinsic value2 or moral status of a non-human animal is typically less than that of a normal human adult.

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As to the problems of animal research and non- vegetarianism, I shall try to explain what they are, and why at present there appears to be no satisfactory solution.

Section VI discusses some exceptional cases in which the method of approximation can be used to achieve resolution of certain problems.

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In section VII, I consider whether utilitarianism is a way out of the impasse, and argue that it is not. I argue that this issue would depend on whether non-human animals have rights, and try to show why it is such a perplexing issue. We may call it all-or-nothing anti-speciesism. One view holds that all human beings and non-human animals have equal inherent value.

Regan holds that some non-human animals and all humans, except possibly permanently comatose human beings Regan,p. This term refers to the human and non-human animals that have beliefs, desires, perceptions, memory, preference, experience, individual welfare, and psychological identity over time p.

Regan believes that all subjects-of-a-life have inherent value equally, and all those of equal inherent value have equal rights. Since this consequence is morally repugnant, all moral agents must have equal inherent value.

Regan then argues that this equal inherent value must be extended to very young HON-LAM LI children and the mentally enfeebled because they too can suffer as much as human moral agents pp.

Further, he argues that since these human non-moral agents are relevantly similar to non-human mammals, any refusal to extend equal inherent value to the latter would be speciesist Regan,p. So Regan concludes that all subjects-of-a-life have equal inherent value and hence equal rights. My chief criticism of Regan is that there exists a more plausible alternative to his view.

This alternative view holds that one's inherent value is the inherent value of one's capacity for experiencing life or experiential capacity.

The only reason Regan has for rejecting this line of reasoning is that he thinks that this would lead to pernicious perfectionist views. But his reasoning seems dubious.

The pernicious perfectionist consequence that those of greater inherent value can exploit or otherwise treat as a mere means those with less inherent value simply does not follow. As he acknowledged in an earlier paper, normal people have greater inherent value than the severely mentally enfeebled Regan,pp.The animal rights debate, some might say, is a set of quarrels so academic, so "philosophical," that it does not really concern most ordinary folks.

After all, great industries and tens of thousands of jobs depend on animal use. Animal Studies Bibliography. Linda Kalof, Seven Mattes, Amy Fitzgerald Animal Studies Program, Michigan State University. Introduction. This bibliography is an ongoing project of the Animal Studies Program at Michigan State University.

Category: Peter Singer - On Human Relations with Other Sentient Beings

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Synthesis Tom Regan, Carl Cohen, Peter Singer Animal rights are one of the most controversial issues today.

There has been endless debate about whether or not animals have rights. Favorite Authors Looking for quotes by our most popular authors? Gather wisdom from the ages as you browse favorite quotes by famous authors like: Aristotle, Abraham Lincoln, Thomas Jefferson, Oscar Wilde, and William Shakespeare.

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