Background[ edit ] The act was passed on 12 August by the Rump Parliament of England, which had taken power after the Second English Civil War and had agreed to the Cromwellian conquest of Ireland.
The essay below which will not be published in the new title gives a flavour of Cromwellian plantation essay readers may expect. Four decades after defeat at the Battle of Kinsale, the resentment of the vanquished native Irish clans boiled over when they supported the Roman Catholic Old English in the Rebellion.
Rebels from Cromwellian plantation essay clans were eager to attack Wicklow settlers to settle scores and unleash their resentment on the newcomers. Robbery and the destruction of property were commonplace.
It is evident from the depositions that the rebels raided and plundered throughout west Wicklow with impunity during the rebellion. However, the depositions also reveal deeper underlying issues dividing settler and native in the region, and violence as a manifestation of deep-seated religious and socio-economic grievances.
The best-documented example relates to the hanging of a Protestant woman named Jane Fflood Flood in Hollywood during the spring of Her body was disrespectfully left uninterred, but Buckley stated that a lady named Sarah, whose surname he did not know, brought a winding sheet and helped to bury Jane Flood three days later.
McDonnell denied knowing either Jane Flood or her husband Philip, while Murphy admitted knowing them, but denied complicity in the murder, stating however that he heard that the Irish rebels had hanged her. At least one other deposition regarding the case was also given thus, suggesting that Irish was the language of the native clans of west Wicklow at this time.
The verdict on Murphy and McDonnell was not recorded in the depositions, but it is likely that they were found guilty. Jane Flood, a Protestant, was in the wrong place at the wrong time. In this context, the episode also becomes a sectarian manifestation, and attests to an undercurrent of sectarianism in west Wicklow during the mid-seventeenth century.
The Civil Survey of the s throws additional light on sectarian violence during the rebellion, and the resulting reduction of the native Irish, Catholic population in the region.
County Wicklow was not included in the Civil Survey, but the entries pertaining to villages and parishes in County Kildare close to the Wicklow border demonstrate sectarian upheaval in the region.
They replaced older Catholic proprietors such as Peter Sarsfield of Tully, whose lands were confiscated.
The Civil Survey leaves no room for doubt regarding the separateness and the sharply contrasting fortunes of old Catholic Irish clans and new Protestant settlers.
Early seventeenth-century social relationships that crossed ethnic and religious lines occasionally occurred,  but the protagonists of the s and early s perceived themselves as polarised along lines of ethnicity and religion.
This sense of a society divided along ethnic and religious lines present in contemporary English documents was also reflected in contemporary Irish literature. While none of this refers specifically refers to Wicklow, the sentiment expressed in the poetry of the diminishing band of seventeenth-century Gaelic poets was as likely to reflect realities in Wicklow as elsewhere.
Many of these poems treat of a real separateness between native and settler, an ethnic and religious gulf that existed within Irish society.
This was even more evident in the poems of the post rebellion and Act of Settlement period. Indeed, from the s to the s, almost no Gaelic poet looked to the past, as if the generation who lived through the upheavals of the s and s preferred to forget the events of those decades. Confiscation of Catholic land was not a new phenomenon.
Sir Thomas Eustace was made tenant of the abbey, granted these lands and became Viscount Baltinglass. Following the failed Baltinglass revolt, the Statute of Baltinglass of outlawed this branch of the Eustace family.
However, this had been Gaelic Irish land, while in the s the confiscated lands principally belonged to Old English families such as the Sarsfields, who were among the great losers in the Cromwellian settlement.
Peter Sarsfield was outlawed for his participation in the rebellion and his lands were forfeited. On Wednesday 17 June their case was heard.Mar 11, · The 13 American Colonies revolted in One cause was the high tax rates, which the colonies unified in rejecting.
However, the colonists should have paid the taxes, the whole reason Britain needed the money in the first place was because of the French and Indian War.
Kristen Block, University of Tennessee Knoxville, History Department, Faculty Member. Studies Shamanism, Latin American and Caribbean History, and Atlantic World. Associate Professor of History, Caribbean and Atlantic World.
The essay critically works through and beyond such encounters—both spectral and embodied—in an attempt to open speculatively onto possible revisions of contemporary debates in feminism and onto shifts in the ground of left coalitional politics.
Contextualising the Ulster Plantation Ruth A. Canning (University College Cork) A Review of Éamonn Ó Ciardha & Micheál Ó Siochrú (eds) The Plantation of Ulster: Ideology and Practice. Caldwell Timeline by David A. Caldwell 10, BC Resettlement in present day Scotland by hunter-gatherers (stone age paleolithic people).
The face, jaw . CROMWELLIAN LAND SETTLEMENT Cromwellian land settlement derived from three statutes: Indexed on CD-ROM: A Review Essay" in National Genealogical Society Quarterly, Vol.
86, No. 2, June , pages LISTS OF LAND OWNERS Irish Land Records.