It is closed-book and is two and a half hours in duration. The questions are distributed in accordance with the percentages shown above.
Individual values develop over time through socialisation, upbringing and experiences. These values when viewed on a personal level, guide individual actions.
Individuals working in the health and social care setting also hold professional values derived from professional training and ideology. Decisions are made using both personal and professional values and all decisions will have an ethical dimension.
Historically health and social care practitioners have been directed by principles and guidance, enabling them to develop what is described as a professional morality. Codes of practice have long been seen as regulations guiding practice, with clear standards of conduct General Social Care Council,p 4.
In areas of health and social care ethical principles are used along with codes of practice to guide and enhance the decision-making process. These principles are related to a sense of doing the right thing or that which is moral and with ideas of what is good and bad practice K, Book 4, p This idea can be problematic and can be viewed both objectively and subjectively.
If viewed from an objective point of view, who should be trusted to know what is the objective truth? If subjective, who is the one whose opinion should be listened to?
Questions such as these are often at the core of dilemmas. Professionals working within health and social care environments do not just deal with decisions based upon the right and good.
Pattison and Heller suggest, ethics and value issues thread their way through normal, daily health care practice, the interpretation of which is open to more than one explanation K, Offprints, p Although principles guide actions, there is still a need to assess a situation and devise an appropriate response.
Ethical principles are important in the field of health and social care. Practitioners need to have the ability to make informed, ethical and justifiable decisions relating to the individuals in their care.
This can be difficult when faced with a challenging case. Using a framework to develop a structured way of thinking through a particular ethical situation or challenge can be helpful.
The ETHICS framework was developed to assist people working in care settings and offers a structured way of assessing a course of action in order to come to an ethically informed decision.
The framework requires practitioners to firstly, Enquire about the relevant facts of the case, Think about the options that are available to all involved, Hear the views of everyone including service user, family members and relevant providersIdentify any relevant ethical principles and values which may help to guide the decision—making process, Clarify the meaning and consequences of any key values and finally Select a course of action offering supporting arguments K, Book4, p When taking into account the case study, four ethical principles will be examined.
The principles are seen as the starting points for the development of ethical approaches to care practice, providing a practical set of principles, which rather than offering direct answers to ethical dilemmas, set out useful guiding principles for practitioners when faced with controversial decisions K, Book 4, p Respect for Autonomy refers to a commitment to respect the decision-making capability of an autonomous individual.
Autonomy is the freedom to act as a person wishes, to be able to make decisions about their own life and not to be controlled by others. Beauchamp and Childress identify two areas necessary for autonomy: Liberty or independence from control and Agency, the capacity for deliberate action K, Book 4, p The codes of practice for social care workers state: Identifying harmful behaviour is multifaceted and open to interpretation.
The assessment of risk could have serious consequences for Peter perhaps leading to a limiting of his rights and liberty in the interest of protecting others from harm K, Book 4, p The case study does not accurately point out if Peter has the mental capability to understand that his actions could be disruptive and upsetting for others.
This being the case it may also be appropriate to talk to both Peter and his family about the situation in order to find a solution. Beneficence and the promotion of welfare are concerned with the provision of benefits and the balance of these against risk in the care and treatment of service users.
It requires that care providers make a positive contribution to help others, not just refrain from acts of harm. Although, rather than being straightforward in its attempts to solve ethical dilemmas, beneficence can be viewed as being rather vague K, Book4, p Beauchamp and Childress claim, the philosophy of non-malfeasance is an obligation to do no harm.
Unlike beneficence, which promotes welfare and concentrates upon positively helping others, non-malfeasance focuses upon guiding health and social care practitioners to avoid harm-causing activities, this includes negligence. The principle of non-malfeasance can be difficult to apply in practice K, Book 4, p Section 3 of the codes of practice for social care workers may guide staff in promoting the independence of other service users residents in assisting them to understand and exercise their rights to autonomy.The aim of this essay is to explore the ethical principles, mainly looking at the principle of autonomy; Ethical principles are used for staff to meet the requirements of others to an appropriate standard of social and professional behaviour, General Medical Council.
Ethical principles and codes of practice can provide guidance in day-to-day practice. Analyse Peter’s situation in the case study and come to a conclusion about what would be an appropriate response.
Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concern matters of value, and thus comprise the branch of philosophy called axiology.. Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong. Introduction In my essay on academic freedom in the USA, I argued that the legal concept of academic freedom in the USA was mostly an illusion.
The previous essay in this series, on freedom of speech of government employees, discussed U.S. Supreme Court opinions on the right of government employees to criticize their employer, under the First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, then examined.
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- Using the Ethical Principles of the American Counseling Association Operating within the bounds of the principles asserted by the American Counseling Association (American Counseling Association [ACA], ) is a moral and ethical mandated for all counselors.