Gender constructs and the state

Translating constructs into operational definitions What are constructs? The table below provides some examples of these different types of constructs:

Gender constructs and the state

Among the most popular variations of the social constructionist theories is the gender role theory, considered by Alsop, Fitzsimons and Lennon as an early form of social constructionism.

The focus on power and hierarchy reveals inspiration stemming from a Marxist framework, utilized for instance by materialist feminism, and Foucault's writings on discourse.

Social constructionismbriefly, is the concept that there are many things that people "know" or take to be "reality" that are at least partially, if not completely, socially situated. Examples include money, tenurecitizenshipdecorations for bravery, and the presidency of the United States.

Social constructionism is a theory of knowledge. Social constructionism focuses on how meaning is created. Emerging from the criticism of objectivitysocial constructionism challenges concepts of knowledge put forward by positivismwhich postulates the externality of reality and that empirically-proved truths are mind-independent.

Knowledge is a social product. Power and hierarchy underlie social construction. This focus results in showing how individuals differ in status, entitlement, efficacy, self-respect and other traits based on the kind of interactions one is involved in and subjected to.

Language is at the core of knowledge. Language is considered the building block of culture; it conveys meaning and creates the system of knowledge humans participate in. Ultimately, language has a huge influence on how humans perceive reality and, as a result, is the creator of this reality.

Social construction is a dynamic process. Social constructionists emphasize the complexity of how knowledge is created in social interactions. Knowledge and meanings are not stable or constant; they are co-constructed in interactions with others, negotiated, modified and shifted.

People are active in their perception, understanding and sharing of knowledge acquired from their social milieu.

Gender constructs and the state

It is prudent therefore to consider this process when explaining the social construction of knowledge, including knowledge concerning gender. The individual and society are indissoluble.

Social constructionists question the Western idea of an autonomous individual who can draw a clear line between the self and the society. According to social constructionism, individuals can create meaning only in relation to what they are exposed to in their environment.

Paradoxically, the same individuals co-create the meanings that are available in this environment. They also argue that both the materialist and discursive theories of social construction of gender can be either essentialist or non-essentialist. This means that some of these theories assume a clear biological division between women and men when considering the social creation of masculinity and femininity, while other contest the assumption of the biological division between the sexes as independent of social construction.

Gender Gender, according to West and Zimmerman, is not a personal trait; it is "an emergent feature of social situations: Contemporary constructionist perspective, as proposed by Fenstermaker and West, proposes treating gender as an activity "doing" of utilizing normative prescriptions and beliefs about sex categories based on situational variables.

These "gender activities" constitute our belonging to a sex as based on the socially accepted dichotomy of "women" and "men". It is noted, however, that these activities are not always perceived by the audience as being either "masculine" or "feminine", they are at constant risk of being assessed as more or less "womanly" or "manly"; ultimately, any behavior may be judged based upon its "manly" or "womanly" nature.

This in turn points to the situational nature of gender rather than its inherent, essentialist and individual nature. Gender roles[ edit ] Gender roles are often centred around the conceptions of femininity or masculinity. In our society today, women are socialized as being the caretakers of the house, who nurture the children, cook and clean.

With men, they "should" be the workhorse, the provider, protector, a leader, and a teacher to his family. Levant and Kathleen Alto write: A recent synthesis of meta-analytic studies of gender differences provides strong evidence for a social construct understanding of gender.The social construction of gender is a notion in feminism and sociology about the operation of gender and gender differences in societies.

According to this view, society and culture create gender roles, and these roles are prescribed as ideal or appropriate behavior for a person of that specific sex. Gender Constructs and the State o In what way were Latin American gender roles and political equality related in precolonial times?

o How did sociopolitical institutions affect Latin American gender constructions in the colonial period? o What effects have modern revolutionary conflicts had on traditional Latin American gender systems?

Sociology of Gender In sociology, we make a distinction between sex and gender. Sex are the biological traits that societies use to assign people into the category of either male or female, whether it be through a focus on chromosomes, genitalia or some other physical ascription.

Gender and Socialization. The social construction of gender comes out of the general school of thought entitled social constructionism. Social constructionism proposes that everything people “know” or see as “reality” is partially, if not entirely, socially situated.

Gender Roles in the United States. Polite Ire looks at the links between gender and the state, arguing that masculinity is constructed in the image of the state.

Polite Ire looks at the links between gender and the state, arguing that masculinity is constructed in the image of the state. Politics is dominated by men. Indeed when David Cameron was accused of being sexist, he responded at the next PMQs by ensuring there were a number of female MPs sat behind. Gender Constructs and the State o In what way were Latin American gender roles and political equality related in precolonial times? o How did sociopolitical institutions affect Latin American gender constructions in the colonial period? o What effects have modern revolutionary conflicts had on traditional Latin American gender systems? Sociology of Gender In sociology, we make a distinction between sex and gender. Sex are the biological traits that societies use to assign people into the category of either male or female, whether it be through a focus on chromosomes, genitalia or some other physical ascription.

Politics is dominated by men. Indeed when David Cameron was accused of being sexist, he responded at the next PMQs by ensuring there were a number of female MPs sat behind. Gender Constructs and the State o In what way were Latin American gender roles and political equality related in precolonial times?

o How did sociopolitical institutions affect Latin American gender constructions in the colonial period? o What effects have modern revolutionary conflicts had on traditional Latin American gender systems?

Feminist Perspectives on Sex and Gender (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)