Lavina Lobo Sigmund Freud's Psychosexual Development Theory Born on May 6, in Moravia, Sigmund Freud was an Austrian neurologist who, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, developed the field of psychoanalysis. Freud developed many theories including those that focus on th unconscious, the interpretation of dreams, Id, ego, and super ego, and what is referred to as the psychosexual development theory.
Gender Development in Late Adulthood Late adulthood old age is generally considered to begin at about age Erik Erikson suggests that at this time it is important to find meaning and satisfaction in life rather than to become bitter and disillusioned, that is, to resolve the conflict of integrity vs.
Despite the problems associated with longevity, studies of people in their 70s have shown that growing old is not necessarily synonymous with substantial mental or physical deterioration. Many older people are happy and engaged in a variety of activities.
Gerontology, an interdisciplinary field that studies the process of aging and the aging population, involves psychology, biology, sociology, and other fields. Theories of successful aging.
Theories of successful aging include the following: The disengagement theory states that as people age, their withdrawal from society is normal and desirable as it relieves them of responsibilities and roles that have become difficult.
Proponents of this theory believe that activities of earlier years should be maintained as long as possible. Ageism may be defined as the prejudice or discrimination that occurs on the basis of age.
Although it can be used against people of all ages, older people are most frequently its target and it may often result in forced retirement. People typically reach the peak of their physical strength and endurance during their twenties and then gradually decline.
In later adulthood, a Social and personality development in late adulthood of physiological changes may occur, including some degree of atrophy of the brain and a decrease in the rate of neural processes. The respiratory and circulatory systems are less efficient, and changes in the gastrointestinal tract may lead to increased constipation.
Bone mass diminishes, especially among women, leading to bone density disorders such as osteoporosis.
Muscles become weaker unless exercise programs are followed. The skin dries and becomes less flexible. Hair loss occurs in both sexes. There is also decreased sensitivity in all of the sensory modalities, including olfaction, taste, touch, hearing, and vision.
The study of cognitive changes in the older population is complex. Intellectual changes in late adulthood do not always result in reduction of ability. While fluid intelligence the ability to see and to use patterns and relationships to solve problems does decline in later years, crystallized intelligence the ability to use accumulated information to solve problems and make decisions has been shown to rise slightly over the entire life span.
Dementias are usually responsible for cognitive defects seen in older people. The leading cause of dementia in the United States is Alzheimer's disease, a progressive, eventually fatal disease that begins with confusion and memory lapses and ends with the loss of ability to care for oneself.
Retirement at age 65 is the conventional choice for many people, although some work until much later. People have been found to be happier in retirement if they are not forced to retire before they are ready and if they have enough income to maintain an adequate living standard.
Chronic health problems such as arthritis, rheumatism, and hypertension increasingly interfere with the quality of life of most individuals as they age. Women tend to marry men older than they are and, on average, live 5 to 7 years longer than men.
One study found ten times as many widows as widowers. Widowhood is particularly stressful if the death of the spouse occurs early in life; close support of friends, particularly other widows, can be very helpful. Denial, an attempt to deny the reality and to isolate oneself from the event, is frequently the first reaction.
As the end nears, recognition that death is inevitable and that separation from family will occur leads to feelings of exhaustion, futility, and deep depression. Acceptance often follows if death is not sudden, and the person finds peace with the inevitable. People who are dying are sometimes placed in a hospice, a hospital for the terminally ill that attempts to maintain a good quality of life for the patient and the family during the final days.
In a predictable pattern after a loved one's death, initial shock is followed by grief, followed by apathy and depression, which may continue for weeks.
Support groups and counseling can help in successfully working through this process.Chapter Social and Personality Development in Late Adulthood. Learning Objectives; Practice Test; Flashcards; Social and Personality Learning Objectives: Practice Test: Flashcards: Social and Personality Development in Late Adulthood.
Learning Objectives; Practice Test; Flashcards;. The process of developing an identity begins with the infant's discovery of self, continues throughout childhood, and becomes the focus of adolescence.
Did you know? A child's brain doubles in size in the first year, and by age three it reaches 80 percent of its adult volume. 1, 2; The back-and-forth interactions of babies and adults shape a baby's brain architecture, supporting the development of communication and social .
Understanding adult development is an important step in the process of understanding how societies function.
|Additional Topics||All aspects of child development are interconnected Figure 1.|
|Personality Theories: Introduction||Northwestern University This paper reveals a theory of personality based on the formation of intimate relationships during the early stages of a person's lifetime.|
|Downloading prezi...||Erik Erikson, a pioneer in the field of personality development, identified the goal of adolescence as achieving a coherent identity and avoiding identity confusion. Identity is multidimensional and may include physical and sexual identity, occupational goals, religious beliefs, and ethnic background.|
This lesson will focus on three theories of adult development proposed by Daniel. During each stage, the person experiences a psychosocial crisis which could have a positive or negative outcome for personality development.
For Erikson (), these crises are of a psychosocial nature because they involve psychological needs of the individual (i.e.
psycho) conflicting with the needs of society (i.e. social). Biography. Erik Erikson was born in Frankfurt, Germany, on June 15, There is a little mystery about his heritage: His biological father was an unnamed Danish man who abandoned Erik's mother before he was born.