The description of the gamma hydroxybutyrate ghb

List of electronic dance music festivals and Doof By the s, genres such as acidbreakbeat hardcorehardcorehappy hardcoregabberpost-industrial and electronica were all being featured at raves, both large and small. There were mainstream events which attracted thousands of people up to 25,[ citation needed ] instead of the 4, that came to earlier warehouse parties. Acid house music parties were first re-branded "rave parties" in the media, during the summer of by Genesis P-Orridge Neil Andrew Megson during a television interview; however, the ambience of the rave was not fully formed until the early s. Inraves were held "underground" in several cities, such as BerlinMilan and Patrasin basements, warehouses and forests.

The description of the gamma hydroxybutyrate ghb

Commonly Abused Drugs Charts | National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)

The incidence of all these reactions was notably higher at 9 g per night. In controlled trials in narcolepsy, discontinuations of treatment due to adverse reactions were greater at higher doses of Xyrem.

Postmarketing Experience The following adverse reactions have been identified during postapproval use of Xyrem. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure: Prescribers are advised to monitor patient response closely and adjust dose accordingly if concomitant use of Xyrem and divalproex sodium is warranted.

The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. Clinical Considerations Labor or Delivery Xyrem has not been studied in labor or delivery. In obstetric anesthesia using an injectable formulation of sodium oxybate, newborns had stable cardiovascular and respiratory measures but were very sleepy, causing a slight decrease in Apgar scores.

There was a fall in the rate of uterine contractions 20 minutes after injection. Placental transfer is rapid and gamma hydroxybutyrate GHB has been detected in newborns at delivery after intravenous administration of GHB to mothers. Subsequent effects of sodium oxybate on later growth, development, and maturation in humans are unknown.

There is insufficient information on the risk to a breastfed infant, and there is insufficient information on milk production in nursing mothers. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother's clinical need for Xyrem and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from Xyrem or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Geriatric Use Clinical studies of Xyrem in patients with narcolepsy did not include sufficient numbers of subjects age 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.

Discontinuations of treatment due to adverse reactions were increased in the elderly compared to younger adults Frequency of headaches was markedly increased in the elderly The most common adverse reactions were similar in both age categories. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

Hepatic Impairment The starting dose of Xyrem should be reduced by one-half in patients with liver impairment [see Dosage and Administration 2. Abuse Xyrem sodium oxybatethe sodium salt of GHB, produces dose-dependent central nervous system effects, including hypnotic and positive subjective reinforcing effects.

The onset of effect is rapid, enhancing its potential for abuse or misuse. The rapid onset of sedation, coupled with the amnestic features of Xyrem, particularly when combined with alcohol, has proven to be dangerous for the voluntary and involuntary user e.

Illicit GHB is abused in social settings primarily by young adults. Some of the doses estimated to be abused are in a similar dosage range to that used for treatment of patients with cataplexy. GHB has some commonalities with ethanol over a limited dose range, and some cross tolerance with ethanol has been reported as well.

Cases of severe dependence and craving for GHB have been reported when the drug is taken around the clock. Patterns of abuse indicative of dependence include: Because illicit use and abuse of GHB have been reported, physicians should carefully evaluate patients for a history of drug abuse and follow such patients closely, observing them for signs of misuse or abuse of GHB e.

Dispose of Xyrem according to state and federal regulations. It is safe to dispose of Xyrem down the sanitary sewer. Dependence There have been case reports of withdrawal, ranging from mild to severe, following discontinuation of illicit use of GHB at frequent repeated doses 18 g to g per day in excess of the therapeutic dose range.

Signs and symptoms of GHB withdrawal following abrupt discontinuation included insomnia, restlessness, anxiety, psychosis, lethargy, nausea, tremor, sweating, muscle cramps, tachycardia, headache, dizziness, rebound fatigue and sleepiness, confusion, and, particularly in the case of severe withdrawal, visual hallucinations, agitation, and delirium.

These symptoms generally abated in 3 to 14 days.

The description of the gamma hydroxybutyrate ghb

In cases of severe withdrawal, hospitalization may be required. The discontinuation effects of Xyrem have not been systematically evaluated in controlled clinical trials. Tolerance Tolerance to Xyrem has not been systematically studied in controlled clinical trials. There have been some case reports of symptoms of tolerance developing after illicit use at dosages far in excess of the recommended Xyrem dosage regimen.Treatment should be initiated by and remain under the guidance of a physician experienced in the treatment of sleep disorders.

Posology. The recommended starting dose is g/day sodium oxybate divided into two equal doses of g/dose. From Grams to Tons: Fine chemical high-tech company which contains R&D, production, and sales.

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What is Motivational Interviewing? by Stephen Rollnick, Ph.D., & William R.

The description of the gamma hydroxybutyrate ghb

Miller, Ph.D. Introduction. The concept of motivational interviewing evolved from experience in the treatment of problem drinkers, and was first described by Miller () in an article published in Behavioural Psychotherapy.

GHB | Gouvernement du Québec

®sodium oxybate) is the sodium salt of gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). Abuse or misuse of illicit GHB, either alone or in combination with other CNS depressants, is. A rave (from the verb: to rave) is an organized dance party at a nightclub, outdoor festival, warehouse, or other private property typically featuring performances by DJs, playing a seamless flow of electronic dance at rave events play electronic dance music on vinyl, CDs and digital audio from a wide range of genres, including techno, hardcore, house, drum & bass, dubstep, and post.

GHB Drug: Effects, Hazards & Methods of Abuse -