Worldwide, an estimated 3. Global deaths attributable to ambient and household air pollution inby region1,3. The combined effects of ambient and household air pollution resulted in an estimated 7 million deaths globally among children and adults indue to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. The most affected regions are South East Asia and the low and middle income countries in the Western Pacific.
Moreover, losing them will lead directly or indirectly to incalculable economic losses. We have come to appreciate the importance of our environment. Much has been said and written about environmental problems with nuclear power, and they will be discussed at great length in this book.
They probably exceed those of any other human activity. The ones that have received the most publicity in recent years have been the "greenhouse effect," which is changing the Earth's climate; acid rain, which is destroying forests and killing fish; and air pollution, which is killing tens of thousands of American citizens every year, while making tens of millions ill and degrading our quality of life in other ways.
We will discuss each of these in turn, and then summarize some of the other problems that have drawn lesser attention. But first we must begin with some basics.
Coal, oil, and gas consist largely of carbon and hydrogen. The process that we call "burning" actually is chemical reactions with oxygen in the air. For the most part, the carbon combines with oxygen to form carbon dioxide CO2and the hydrogen combines with oxygen to form water vapor H In both of these chemical reactions a substantial amount of energy is released as heat.
Since heat is what is needed to instigate these chemical reactions, we have a chain reaction: Once started the process continues until nearly all of the fuel has gone through the process i.
Of course, the reason for arranging all this is to derive the heat. The carbon dioxide that is released is the cause of the greenhouse effect we will be discussing. A large coal-burning plant annually burns 3 million tons of coal to produce 11 million tons of carbon dioxide. The concept of wavelength is most easily understood for water waves, where it is the distance between successive crests.
For electromagnetic waves it is the distance between successive peaks of the electric and magnetic fields. Ordinary radios use the longest wavelengths of interest, to meters for AM stations. Microwaves, familiar from the ovens that employ them, and radar, which plays a vital role in military applications and is also used by the police to catch speeders, have shorter wavelengths, in the range of centimeters to millimeters.
Visible light is electromagnetic waves with much shorter wave lengths, ranging from 0. Wavelengths between where visibility ends 0. Every object in the universe constantly emits electromagnetic radiation, and absorbs or reflects that which impinges on it.
According to the laws of physics, the wavelength of the emitted radiation decreases inversely as the temperature increases. Here we use absolute temperature, which is Fahrenheit temperature plus degrees. More applicable to our discussion is the surface of the sun, which is at 11, degrees and therefore emits visible light as we can plainly see, and the surface of the Earth which, at about degrees, emits infrared, as we know from the fact that it is not visible on a dark night.
The rate at which an object emits radiation energy increases very rapidly with increasing temperature doubling the absolute temperature increases the radiation fold. That's why a hand placed near a light bulb is heated much more by radiation from the filament when it is hot light on than when it is cool light off.
Now let us consider a bare object out in space, such as our moon. It receives and absorbs radiation from the sun, which increases its temperature, and this increased temperature causes it to emit more radiation. Through this process it comes to an equilibrium temperature, where the amount of radiation it emits is just equal to the amount it receives from the sun.
That determines the average temperature of the moon. If this were the whole story, our Earth would be 54 degrees cooler than it actually is, and nearly all land would be covered by ice. The reason for the difference is that the Earth's atmosphere contains molecules that absorb infrared radiation.
They do not absorb the visible radiation coming in from the sun, so the Earth gets its full share of that. But a fraction of the infrared emitted by the Earth is absorbed by these molecules which then reemit it, frequently back to the Earth.
That is what provides the extra heating. It is also the cause of automobiles getting hot when parked in the sun; the incoming visible radiation passes through the glass windows, while the infrared emitted from the car's interior is absorbed by the glass and much of it is emitted back into the interior.
Molecules in the atmosphere that absorb infrared and thereby increase the Earth's temperature are called greenhouse gases. Carbon dioxide is an efficient greenhouse gas.
The atmosphere of Venus contains vast quantities of carbon dioxide, elevating its temperature by degrees over what it would be without an atmosphere. That's why no astronaut will ever be able to land on Venus. Mars, on the other hand, has no atmosphere and is at the temperature expected from the simple considerations discussed above in connection with our moon.
Our problem is that burning coal, oil, and gas produces carbon dioxide, which adds to the supply already in the atmosphere, increasing the greenhouse effect and thereby increasing the temperature of the Earth.
Prior to the industrial age, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere was less than ppm parts per million.Light pollution, also known as photopollution, is the presence of anthropogenic light in the night timberdesignmag.com is exacerbated by excessive, misdirected or obtrusive uses of light, but even carefully used light fundamentally alters natural conditions.
Hazardous air pollutants, also called air toxics, include pollutants listed in the Clean Air Act. EPA can add pollutants that are known or suspected to cause cancer or other serious health effects, such as reproductive effects or birth defects, or to cause adverse environmental effects.
Amazing For a long time the UN has said we will peak at 9 billion. Well, at first it was 11 billion, but with the current birth dearth crisis, it appears it will never see that day.
8 billion is a lot, but considering that the population is also aging at an unprecendented rate, we will lose a greater portion of our population. This is an excellent addition!
To the first point regarding the different engines- you need to get a screen shot of an aircraft with an apu running in flight- sometimes the apu creates a contrail when the engines aren’t and vise-versa. Air Pollution ~ Environmental Issues.
Air pollution is one of the top environmental issues affecting quality of life today.. What Is Air Pollution. Any particles or gases that are not part of the normal composition of air (which is normally % nitrogen, oxygen, water vapor, and inert gases) qualify as air pollution.
Discover the risks of air pollution in Thailand. I use realtime reports & reliable studies to show the cleanest & dirtiest areas to live in.