On Liberty Mill's On Liberty addresses the nature and limits of the power that can be legitimately exercised by society over the individual. However Mill is clear that his concern for liberty does not extend to all individuals and all societies.
Life A leading theorist in Anglo-American philosophy of law and one of the founders of utilitarianism, Jeremy Bentham was born in Houndsditch, London on February 15, Bentham lived during a time of major social, political and economic change.
Though qualified to practice law, he never did so. Instead, he devoted most of his life to writing on matters of legal reform—though, curiously, he made little effort to publish much of what he wrote. Bentham spent his time in intense study, often writing some eight to twelve hours a day.
While most of his best known work deals with theoretical questions in law, Bentham was an active polemicist and was engaged for some time in developing projects that proposed various practical ideas for the reform of social institutions.
Although his work came to have an important influence on political philosophy, Bentham did not write any single text giving the essential principles of his views on this topic. His most important theoretical work is the Introduction to the Principles of Morals and Legislationin which much of his moral theory—which he said reflected "the greatest happiness principle"—is described and developed.
InBentham became associated with the Earl of Shelburne and, through him, came into contact with a number of the leading Whig politicians and lawyers.
Inhe briefly joined his brother Samuel in Russia, where he pursued his writing with even more than his usual intensity, and he devised a plan for the now infamous "Panopticon"—a model prison where all prisoners would be observable by unseen guards at all times—a project which he had hoped would interest the Czarina Catherine the Great.
After his return to England inand for some 20 years thereafter, Bentham pursued—fruitlessly and at great expense—the idea of the panopticon.
Fortunately, an inheritance received in provided him with financial stability. Still, his influence was, arguably, still greater on the continent.
Bentham was made an honorary citizen of the fledgling French Republic inand his The Theory of Legislation was published first, in French, by his Swiss disciple, Etienne Dumont, in At his death in London, on June 6,Bentham left literally tens of thousands of manuscript pages—some of which was work only sketched out, but all of which he hoped would be prepared for publication.
He also left a large estate, which was used to finance the newly-established University College, London for those individuals excluded from university education—that is, non-conformists, Catholics and Jewsand his cadaver, per his instructions, was dissected, embalmed, dressed, and placed in a chair, and to this day resides in a cabinet in a corridor of the main building of University College.
His principal target was the presence of "fictions"—in particular, legal fictions.
On his view, to consider any part or aspect of a thing in abstraction from that thing is to run the risk of confusion or to cause positive deceit.
While, in some cases, such "fictional" terms as "relation," "right," "power," and "possession" were of some use, in many cases their original warrant had been forgotten, so that they survived as the product of either prejudice or inattention. In those cases where the terms could be "cashed out" in terms of the properties of real things, they could continue to be used, but otherwise they were to be abandoned.
Still, Bentham hoped to eliminate legal fictions as far as possible from the law, including the legal fiction that there was some original contract that explained why there was any law at all.
He thought that, at the very least, clarifications and justifications could be given that avoided the use of such terms. Human Nature For Bentham, morals and legislation can be described scientifically, but such a description requires an account of human nature.
Just as nature is explained through reference to the laws of physics, so human behavior can be explained by reference to the two primary motives of pleasure and pain; this is the theory of psychological hedonism.John Stuart Mill (—) John Stuart Mill () profoundly influenced the shape of nineteenth century British thought and political discourse.
His substantial corpus of works includes texts in logic, epistemology, economics, social and political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, religion, and . 4. An underlying theory or set of ideas relating to a particular field of activity or to life as a whole: an original philosophy of advertising; an unusual philosophy of life.
Dec 15, · John Stuart Mill was born in London on May 20, He was the son of James Mill, a philosopher and economist who contributed to the early education of his son. Liberalism is a political and moral philosophy based on liberty and equality. Liberals espouse a wide array of views depending on their understanding of these principles, but they generally support civil rights, democracy, secularism, gender and race equality, internationalism and the freedoms of speech, the press, religion and markets..
Liberalism became a distinct movement in the Age of. John Stuart Mill, who has been called the most influential English-speaking philosopher of the 19th century, was a British philosopher, economist, and moral and political timberdesignmag.com: May 20, Apr 17, · John Stuart Mill, a 19th century English philosopher, wrote three books at are still widely-read today: On Liberty, Utilitarianism, and The Subjection of Women.